History of Nepal

With a civilization stretching back to thousands of years, Nepal, no doubt, has lent magnificence due to its unforgettable scenery, historical places, traditional artistry and rich cultural heritage. The early history of Nepal is not readily available and is shrouded in legends and mythology. One such legend tells the story Manjushri who cut and opening at the rock hill at Chover by his magical power and drained the lake water to make the Kathmandu valley good for human settlement. In another mythological account, a hermit known as "Ne" was the first popular and protect Nepal and so Nepal means a land created and protected by the saint “Ne”.

The history of Nepal dates back to time immemorial and Nepal has always been an independent and sovereign country. According to the ancient historical data, the first rulers of Nepal (basically Kathmandu Valley) were the “Gopalas” followed by the "Abhiras” then succeeded by the “Kirantis”, the “Licchavis”, the “Mallas” and now the “Shah” dynasty.

No chronological accounts accept some inscription are found before the “Malla Dynasty” took over the leadership of country in 13th century and become the king of Kathmandu as well as surrounding areas. And set medieval history of Nepal, soon afterward at the end of the 15th Century the kingdom of Nepal was divided in three independent kingdoms namely Kathmandu, Patan, Bhadgaon (Bhaktpur) by the son of “Yakshya Malla”. Due to the dispute between independent kingdoms, the “Mallas” came to the end in 18th century. Most of the Beautiful palaces, temples and other masterpieces of buildings in Kathamndu were built at the time of “Mallas”, which are considered to be the pride of Nepal at the present time. They decorated their main capitals with many temples, pagodas, palaces, fountain and public baths. They also promoted the development of handicraft in wood, stone, ivory, fold and silver. They also introduced various religions and ceremonies and dances.

At the start of the modern period, Nepal divided into unforgettable principalities-Kathmandu valley into varies states. There were Baisi (22 small independent states) and Chaubisi (24principalities). It was the Gorkha King; Prithivi Narayan Shah launched the national integration campaign in 1749. It took him almost 25 years of almost uninterrupted wars and diplomacy ultimately be succeeded in 1774 and united all the small and divergent warning principalities in to a United Nepal. Since then, the Shah Dynasty is ruling the country. Modern Nepal is the amalgamation of many principalities that previously held independent identities.

For 104 years from 1846 to 1951, the monarch of Nepal had a very passive role, as these were the years when “Rana” regime ruled Nepal. The Ranas made Nepal a closed country and the only foreigners allowed into Nepal were the invited friends of the Ranas. The Rana regime came to an end during the reign of King Tribhuvan in 1951 and Nepal saw the dawn of democracy. Since then the borders of Nepal have been open for outside world and with the inauguration of Royal Nepal Airlines Corporation in 1952, tourism began in Nepal and it is doing magnificent progress in all sectors.