Patan, the “city of beauty and craftsmanship” as its ancient name Lalitpur signifies. It is believed to have been constructed in 299 A.D. during the time of Vera Deva. The city is circular in shape and it situated three kilometers southeast of Kathamndu, a short distance from the southern bank of the river Bagmati. The main Durbar Squire is located in the center of the city. It is a city full of Buddhist monuments and Hindu shrines. It has always been famous for its craftsmen, masons, wood casters, sliver and metal works which can be appreciated by watching the artistic masterpieces in many temples and monuments which are scattered allover Patan. It is full of Buddhist monuments, Hindu temples with bronze getaways, guardian deities and endless carvings like Patan Durbar Squire, Krishna Mandir, Hiranya Varna Mahavihar (Golden Temple), Rudra Varna Mahabihar, Kumbheswar Temple, Mahaboudha, Red MachehhendranathTemple, Jagat Narayan Temple, Ashokan Stupas.

Patan Durbar Square

The ancient seat of royalty of Malla Kings, Durbar Square is yet another museum of brilliant artifacts, sculptures, temples, monuments and crafts. It is concentrated with a dense number of temples, each with its own importance and value, revealing the splendor of stunning artwork. It is full of architectural objects such as old palace complex, golden window, temple of Talaju, Tushahity ancient royal bath etc., and one can lose himself inside the Durbar square, wander around the museum, stroll around beautiful temples, courtyards, palaces and the carved stone waterspouts and visit the Royal coronation spot of Malla Kings inside the square next to the beautiful Malla Palace. Patan Durbar Square was listed in UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1979.

Hiranya Varna Mahavihar (Golden Temple)

It is a unique Buddhist Monastery of three storied golden pagoda style and is equipped heavily with gilded ornaments. It has a fine figure of Lokeshwar (Lord Buddha). King Bhaskar Verma built this temple in the 13th century, and it is situated in the courtyard of Kwabahal. There are many decorations on its walls of very intricate nature. The shrine enshrines on a grand pedestal, the huge image of Buddha and a big 'Prayer wheel'. Many scenes epitomizing the life of Buddha are painted and carved on its walls by master artists of bygone ages. All these artistic and decorative pieces have not only made this shrine a fantastic specimen of Nepalese workmanship but it also justifies its name, Hiranya Varna Mahavihar which means a big Buddhist shrine of golden colour.


This unique temple is only one of its kinds in the whole kingdom of Nepal. This is the fine example of the use of Terracotta in architecture and the temple is constructed to Lord Buddha in a traditional form of Hindu architecture. This work on temple began in 1564 AD and was completed in 1600 AD by the effort of a priest Abhaya Raj and his family members. This temple is a replica of the Bodha Gaya Temple where Lord Buddha got enlightenment. Every brick of this temple is embossed with the image of Buddha and so it is called the temple of million Buddhas.

Krishna Temple

Among the most beautifully carved temple is Krishna Mandir (Temple), which features a number of events and scenes from two great Hindu epics, the Ramayana and the Mahabhrat. King Siddha Narsingh Malla built this temple in the 16th century. This too, is a product of rivalry among the three kings but it surpasses all others in its style and architecture. This is full of intricate details and scenes from Epics Ramayana and Mahabharat, which are engraved in stone. The style of temple is most perfect and provides illustrations of the Nepali temple craft. This is Shikhara Style temple.

Red Machchhendranath Temple

This temple is considered to have been built in 1408 AD. This is also a pagoda styled temple, which is located in a big quadrangular Square. There are numerous works of fine arts of different figures made of bronze around this temple. Avaloketeshwar of Red machchhendranath is housed here for six months a year and then the image is taken round the city of Patan in a colorful chariot festival in April-may. This temple is gorgeous with the decorations largely due to the immense amount of silver leaf used in gilding.

Kumbesheswar Temple

This five storied pagoda style temple is dedicated to Lord Shiva. Inside the courtyard, there is a mineral spring, which is believed to have been connected with the famous glacial lake of Gosainkunda. The temple was built by the command of King Jayasthiti Malla in the11th century and the golden finial was added in 1422 A.D. Kumbha literally means water pot and the temple got its name Kumbheshwar form this Kumbha. Kumbheshwar means Master (Ishwar) of the water pot (kumbha). A fair (festival) is held here on Janai Purnima, in July-August. This courtyard contains some of most beautiful stone carvings.